Un po’ di storia dei Castelli romani (parte I)

 Dal Neolitico all’Impero Romano

Nella foto il Tempio di Giunone Sospita a Lanuvio80522707_145054446921134_6126044482874900480_n
Un territorio così vario come quello dei Colli Albani, ricco di foreste che ospitavano numerosa selvaggina, prati per pascoli, prodotti spontanei del bosco, rigoglioso d’acqua con laghi ed innumerevoli sorgenti, a dominio delle strade di comunicazione con il sud d’Italia non poteva restare troppo a lungo disabitato.
Infatti i primi insediamenti umani stabili si possono far risalire al periodo precedente il Neolitico. Ma le prime popolazioni che hanno lasciato un’impronta importante e documentabile sul territorio si stabilirono intorno all’anno 1000 a. C., quando si formò la civiltà del ferro detta “laziale”, che assunse poi caratteristiche precise con la nascita e lo sviluppo della mitica città di Albalonga.
?I rudi e forti Latini dovettero difendersi da parecchi nemici. D’altronde il possesso di queste terre, vista la posizione strategica del Vulcano Laziale nell’Italia centrale, era vitale, senza contare la bontà del clima e la generosa abbondanza che la natura offriva. Le tribù dei Volsci e degli Equi tentarono più volte di impadronirsi di questo territorio.
?Ma alla fine il popolo dei Romani, al termine del V secolo a. C., risultò vincitore, sottomettendo anche i Latini e restando quindi padrone incontrastato. L’area del Vulcano Laziale venne prescelta da parte di potenti ed illustri personaggi dell’epoca tra i quali Catone, Lucullo, Cicerone, per costruire le proprie ville con annessi giardini dove poter godere tranquillamente gli otia della campagna.
?Tra i più importanti siti di importanza archeologica ricordiamo il complesso dell’antica città di Tuscolo, con il Teatro molto ben conservato risalente al I secolo a. C., i resti del Foro, della cosiddetta Villa di Tiberio e diversi sepolcri. Ad Albano sono ben conservati l’Anfiteatro, il Castrum, il monumento agli Orazi e Curiazi ed i Cisternoni. Notevoli sono anche la Villa di Vitellio ad Ariccia, i ninfei del lago Albano, il tempio di Giunone Sospita a Lanuvio, i resti del tempio di Diana a Nemi, i ruderi della villa degli Antonini a Genzano, e molto altro.
?Anche gli antichi lastricati romani, con il loro tipico basolato sono ben conservati, come l’antica Via Sacra che da Ariccia sale fino a Monte Cavo, l’antico Mons Albanus dove Latini e Romani si recavano al Tempio di Giove (Juppiter Latialis) edificato sulla sua cima per festeggiare le Feriae Latinae.
?Le alture dei Colli Albani seguirono così, nel bene e nel male, le sorti di Roma, adornandosi di ville, teatri e sepolcri nello splendore dell’Impero, e decadendo rapidamente con la fine dello stesso.
(Fonte: http://www.parcocastelliromani.it/)

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